reducto ad gizmo

The great English school composed of Tabel, Shudi and Kirckman produced great solid instruments which follow to a certain degree the directions that Tabel must have brought with him from Antwerp. The doubles are 2x8', 1x4', with a range of 5 octaves. They are almost always unpainted, and typically have fine brasswork.

After the middle of the 1700's English harpsichords, among others, developed a series of gadgets intended to help them compete with the invasive pianoforte; such additions as swell mechanisms to automatically engage additional choirs, or the venetian swell illustrated by this instrument by John Broadwood, from 1793, one of the last historic harpsichords made.